The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005)

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Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

If a consonant appears on its own, it is voiced, except for ʔ

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ Examples:
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar Bilabal
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal Dental/alveolar
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular Alveolar fricative


Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Near-front central Near-back Back
Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ʊ
close-mid e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɶ ɑ ɒ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

For vowels that appear on its own: /ʊ/ is rounded, /ə/ and /æ/ are both unrounded, and /ɐ/ can be rounded or unrounded.

Other Symbols

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative k͡p   t͜s
◌͡◌   ◌͜◌

Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary.

ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive


ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break ɹi.ækt
Linking (absence of a break)


Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊

◌̥ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ More rounded ɔ̹ ʷ Labalized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ Less rounded ɔ̜ ʲ Palatalized Nasal release dⁿ
◌̟ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ Retracted ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ɫ
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
◌̩ Syllabic ◌̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
◌̯ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced Tongue Root
˞ Rhoticity ɚ ◌̙ Retracted Tongue Root

Tones and Word Accents

Level Contour
or ˥ Extra high or ˩˥ Rising
˦ High ˥˩ Falling
˧ Mid e᷄ ˦˥ High rising
˨ Low e᷅ ˩˨ Low rising
˩ Extra low e᷈ ˧˦˧ Rising-falling
Downstep Global rise
Upstep Global fall