The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005)

IPA Chart Keyboard

This IPA chart is composed of Unicode characters and is written in valid XHTML/CSS; it is open source software released under the GPL. To easily copy/enter/input/insert/type the IPA characters/symbols/letters/glyphs and diacritics, found in this chart, use the IPA Unicode “Keyboard”, which is built off of this document.

Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ Examples:
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar Bilabal
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal Dental/alveolar
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular Alveolar fricative


Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Central Back Close Close-mid Open-mid Open
i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
ɪ ʏ ʊ
e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
æ ɐ
a ɶ ɑ ɒ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Symbols

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative k͡p   t͜s
◌͡◌   ◌͜◌

Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary.

ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive


ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break ɹi.ækt
Linking (absence of a break)


Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊

◌̥ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ More rounded ɔ̹ ʷ Labalized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ Less rounded ɔ̜ ʲ Palatalized Nasal release dⁿ
◌̟ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ Retracted ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ɫ
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
◌̩ Syllabic ◌̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
◌̯ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced Tongue Root
˞ Rhoticity ɚ ◌̙ Retracted Tongue Root

Tones and Word Accents

Level Contour
or ˥ Extra high or ˩˥ Rising
˦ High ˥˩ Falling
˧ Mid e᷄ ˦˥ High rising
˨ Low e᷅ ˩˨ Low rising
˩ Extra low e᷈ ˧˦˧ Rising-falling
Downstep Global rise
Upstep Global fall